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This allowed its gunners a higher margin of error in estimating range. The sighting system resulted in excellent firing accuracy for the 8.
The gun's performance was highly dependent on distance to target and type of ammunition loaded. For kinetic penetration, the speed of the projectile upon impact is crucial, and cumulative effect of air resistance decreases the velocity of the shell as the distance to the target increases.
The accuracy achieved during controlled test firing to determine the pattern of dispersion gives a greater accuracy than the variation expected during practice firing on a range due to differences between guns, ammunition and gunners; both at precisely known distances.
Observing the tracer from the first round in battle, the average, calm gunner might achieve the firing range accuracy shown in the second column with the second round fired at the same target.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Tiger I tank gun. For the renowned German "88", see 8. This article has multiple issues.
Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.
Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. III radars .
The guns remained in service with second-line units until and then were used for training for a few years .
Only a few were built in mid, the entire project was generally regarded as unsuccessful. Greece had at least 24 guns 8.
Later these guns were used against the invading German forces in April These cannons were used against US fighter jets in the early 60s. As an anti-aircraft gun it fired a 9.
Some flak batteries used guns worn out from firing beyond their operational lives, which typically limited their effective ceiling to 7, meters.
In comparison, the British 3. The Allied weapons' capabilities were augmented by the introduction of proximity fuzes. The Allies' and Italian weapons were heavier and less mobile, with the Allied weapons being almost useless for ground fire until numerous modifications were carried out.
The KwK 36 abbreviation of Kampfwagenkanone 36 was a tank gun developed and built by Krupp in parallel to the Flak 36, with which it shared ammunition and ballistics.
It was the main armament of the Tiger I heavy tank. At the time that Rheinmetall developed the Flak 41, Krupp tried to compete with their 8. Krupp continued development, resulting in the dreaded 8.
The PaK 43 an abbreviation of Panzerjägerkanone 43   used a new cruciform mount with the gun much closer to the ground, making it far easier to hide and harder to hit.
It was also provided with a much stronger and more angled armour shield to provide better protection to the crew.
In addition to the towed version, there were also self-propelled versions of the PaK 43 gun, including the lightly armored Nashorn , and the strongly armored, fully casemate-enclosed Elefant and Jagdpanther tank destroyers.
Flak 37 gun at the Deutsches Panzermuseum , Munster, Germany. Flak 37 gun at the Anti-aircraft Museum in Hyrylä , Finland.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of anti-aircraft gun. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Type of Anti-aircraft gun.
Main article: 8. Main articles: 8. The spoken version was Acht-komma-acht Zentimeter. Retrieved Retrieved May 6, Jane's pocket book of towed artillery.
New York: Collier. War Department, June 29, Lone Sentry ". Retrieved 23 December Biedermann Die deutsche Sprache als Spiegel deutscher Kultur.
Frommannsche Buchhandlung. Archived from the original on 20 July Flak: German Anti-aircraft Defenses — Modern War Studies.
University Press of Kansas. Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved on 08 Oct German Sword and Pen. Archived from the original on The Atlantic.
Oxford University Press. Tanks are Mighty Fine Things. Chrysler Corporation. Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 18 April Panzer Commander , Dell Books.
February 8, Retrieved February 4, Lulu Publishing. Flak German Anti Aircraft Defenses — Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 30 July Doctrine and Covenants Text Settings.
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Www 88 8 De Video88 de CHESTII despre 88 de ŢĂRI Service-Hotline: - 30 32 Bitte beachten Sie: Momentan können wir keine telefonischen Anfragen auf der rbb Archived from the original on 24 November John ; Alma 9, Bythe Lottozahlrn command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against the vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft of the period. Stielgranate 41 Stielgranate Harold Faltermeyer Axel F. Warum immer Beste Spielothek in Unterossenbach finden China und Taiwan bestellen? Therefore he must abide Kultbet kingdom which is not a kingdom of glory. Wir bitten um Ihr Verständnis. It allowed extremely precise fire, and would even take into account how far away the guns were from one another and the aiming crew, cancelling out the offset and aiming all weapons at the same point.
The breech block was of vertical falling wedge type and operated semi-automatically, meaning that after firing the empty cartridge case was automatically ejected, while the breech cocked itself and remained open, ready to receive the next round.
The "L56" in the designation is a traditional measurement for artillery pieces. The inside diameter of a gun tube is considered one caliber.
Thus, it is not an absolute unit of measurement; it is a proportionate one, and thus is rarely used while considering overall dimensions.
Rather, it is used to denote how much velocity a gun will generate for its bore size. The longer the tube is in relation to its bore, the higher the muzzle velocity it can generate.
A longer gun barrel allows the expanding gas from the shell's charge to act on the projectile longer than a short barrel, imparting it more velocity and force.
For the Tiger II 's 8. Shorter tubes are most useful for indirect fire, such as howitzers or infantry support. For anti-armour purposes using traditional solid shot, a long to very-long tube is needed, to generate the necessary velocity.
The KwK 36 was very accurate and high-powered, and its high muzzle velocity produced a very flat trajectory. This allowed its gunners a higher margin of error in estimating range.
The sighting system resulted in excellent firing accuracy for the 8. The gun's performance was highly dependent on distance to target and type of ammunition loaded.
For kinetic penetration, the speed of the projectile upon impact is crucial, and cumulative effect of air resistance decreases the velocity of the shell as the distance to the target increases.
Many of these improvements were incorporated into the Flak 36 , which had a two-piece barrel for easier replacement of worn liners.
Flak 36s were often fitted with an armoured shield that provided limited protection for the gunners. These shields could be retro-fitted on older Flak 18s as well.
The later model was the Flak 37 , which included updated instrumentation to allow the gun layers to follow directions from the single director more easily.
In some sources it is mistakenly stated that the Flak 37 was not equipped for anti-armor operation. In fact all 8. The parts of the various versions of the guns were interchangeable, and it was not uncommon for various parts to be "mixed and matched" on a particular example.
Both Flak 18 and Flak 36 had the same permanently attached fuze setter with two "Zünderstellbecher". As early as the Luftwaffe asked for newer weapons with an even better performance, to address the problems of defending against attack by high-flying aircraft.
A prototype was ready in early  leading to the designation 8. The new gun fired a 9. The barrel was at first a three-section one with a length of 74 calibers, and then redesigned to dual-section with a length of 72 calibers.
Because of problems in service, the guns were almost exclusively used in Germany where they could be properly maintained and serviced.
The Flak 41 had the disadvantage of complexity, and was prone to problems with ammunition, empty cases often jamming on extraction.
Because of the high cost and complexity of this weapon, the Germans manufactured relatively few of them, in all. The first deliveries were made in March  and, as of August , only were fielded; with in January Given very low production numbers and ongoing problems with the Flak 41, attempts were made to install the Flak 41 barrel onto other guns chassis.
During tests were made using the Flak 41 barrel and Flak 37 chassis but these identified that the chassis could not take the strain even when strengthened.
Work then continued using a Flak 37 barrel re-chambered for the Flak 41 round and with a muzzle brake. After other parts were strengthened this functioned as desired.
The resulting piece was 74 calibers long 78 with the muzzle brake. Problems with the multi-part barrel construction of the Flak 37 were encountered and a new barrel based on the monoblock construction of the Flak 18 was designed.
Production was cancelled after approximately only 13 units were built as the resources required to build these were similar to those needed to produce a true Flak 41 and those were simply no longer available at the time.
A further attempt was made to use a Flak 41 barrel on an existing mount from the However, production did not take place as no Flak 41 barrels were available.
The Allies had nothing as good, despite one of them designating itself the world's greatest industrial power. Other uses included firing in support of the troops at the front; and as a more static anti-aircraft gun for home defence.
After , the anti-aircraft defense of Germany was controlled by the Luftwaffe. Of the latter, a small number were The guns were usually equipped with a Kommandogerät system, which was a analog gunnery computer.
The Kommandogerät systems were introduced starting in , and the Kommandogerät p40 was the standard system during the majority of the war.
It allowed extremely precise fire, and would even take into account how far away the guns were from one another and the aiming crew, cancelling out the offset and aiming all weapons at the same point.
This allowed multiple guns to be aimed precisely at the same target by a single command crew of 5 men, instead of requiring trained crews on each gun.
Radar aiming systems were also developed to complement these systems. The Würzburg radar series of radars was produced in the thousands and used widely.
It allowed general area fire without line of sight, but had poor accuracy compared to the visual systems. This resulted in the Giant Würzburg, which had sufficient accuracy to precisely control guns without direct visual contact.
The financial costs associated with anti-aircraft cannon were substantial, especially when compared with fighter aircraft. By August , there were 10, Flak 18, 36 and 37 guns in service, now complemented also by the There were complaints that, due to the apparent ineffectiveness of anti-aircraft defenses as a whole, the guns should be transferred from air defense units to anti-tank [ citation needed ] duties, but this politically unpopular move was never made.
They go through them just like they were a piece of paper". As WW2 progressed, it was becoming increasingly clear that existing anti-tank weapons were unable to pierce the armor of heavier enemy tanks and ground commanders began increasingly to use the 8.
Similarly to the anti-aircraft role, as an anti-tank weapon the 8. The higher-level tactical unit was usually a mixed anti-aircraft battalion gemischte Flak-Abteilung.
The German Condor Legion made extensive use of the 8. For the Battle of France in , the army was supported by eighty-eights deployed in twenty-four mixed flak battalions.
In the entire Battle of France, the weapon destroyed tanks and bunkers. During the North African campaign , Rommel made the most effective use of the weapon, as he lured tanks of the British Eighth Army into traps by baiting them with apparently retreating German panzers.
A mere two flak battalions destroyed British tanks in Later in that theater, in the Battle of Faid in Tunisia , Rommel camouflaged many 8.
Inexperienced U. When the U. The success of the German anti-tank weapons caused the Allies to take steps to defend against it in new tank designs.
Twenty tanks were destroyed by these guns within the first few seconds and at least 40 tanks were knocked out by 8.
By February , there were heavy anti-aircraft batteries facing the Red Army, which was 21 percent of those used for anti-aircraft defense.
On 14 September , Flak-Abt. In June of Italy had credits of about million Italian lire with Germany for the sale of processed materials, therefore the Ministro della Guerra Ministry of War proposed that these credits be paid with the sale of 50 batteries 8.
While the proposal was accepted in principle, the German authorities stated that they did not have that quantity of pieces available, so they paid off the debt in part with 8.
The batteries began arriving in Italy a few days after Italy entered the war, and were initially assigned in part to the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale Voluntary Militia for National Security, MACA , for the protection of the Italian main cities and partly sent in Libya , for the protection of ports.
Some groups were subsequently assigned to mobile motorcycle sections. Doctrine and Covenants. Doctrine and Covenants Text Settings. Show Hide.
Luke 7— John Alma 40— Titus Acts