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It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. As elsewhere, a civilian settlement formed around the castellum containing many traders and manual workers.
After the expansion of the Roman Empire up to the limes near Jagsthausen arranged by emperor Antoninus Pius in — A.
All the more important was Wimpfen im Tal as a civilian town. It used to be the centre of a district called the Civitas Alisinensium and was surrounded by a city wall like only a few Roman towns in what is southern Germany today.
With an area of about 19 hectares, Wimpfen was one of the biggest Roman towns in today's Baden-Württemberg. Despite this importance, the Latin name of the town is unknown today.
In addition, there was a wooden bridge above the Neckar which got destroyed by severe ice occurrence in the early Middle Ages. A beam salvaged during excavation works in was proved to have originated as part of the old bridge.
A survey proved the origin to be around 85 A. After the withdrawal of the Romans, the Alamanni governed the Neckar area from A. During that time, most Roman buildings became dilapidated, since the Alamanni didn't know anything about stone building and how to use Roman infrastructure.
Around , Wimpfen became part of Franconia. During the settlement of the Franks under Clovis I , Christianity was flourishing, and today's oldest Christian buildings originate from this time.
In the 9th century, Wimpfen became part of the Bishopric of Worms ; it was first mentioned documentary as Wimpina in During that time the Hungarians attacked the region and devastated most settlements, including Wimpfen.
Within the framework of the following reconstruction, the new parish church of St. Peter was built. Being a bigger building, it was dedicated to the patron of the Bishopric of Worms.
During more than three centuries the local dioceses performed the jurisdiction there. In a document dictated by King Otto I granted market rights to Wimpfen.
Thanks to its good location in terms of transport and catchment area, the market developed significantly. Wimpfen's Talmarkt valley market has a history of more than years and is one of the longest running traditional market events in Germany.
In Frederick Barbarossa is believed to have stayed in Wimpfen. He had decentralised the administration of his empire.
The Staufers had built Kaiserpfalzen local castles across the empire. These were big castles where local lords stayed and gave rulings.
The Pfalz of Wimpfen was built on a rocky hill above the settlement of the Neckar Valley. The Pfalz and its surrounding settlement grew so strong that it outstripped the older settlement on the Neckar bank.
By around most of the Staufer buildings had been built, including the Blauer Turm Blue Tower , which is now generally seen as the town's principal visual landmark.
It served as a watch-tower until the 20th century. The Stauferpfalz of Wimpfen is the largest to be preserved north of the Alps.
In there was a historical meeting between Frederick II and his rebellious son Henry. Also in the 13th century Richard von Deidesheim arranged a rebuilding of the diocesan church into the Gothic style.
At the same time a hospital and a Dominican monastery was founded. Due to the decline of the Staufers' Empire, Wimpfen became an imperial city , many manual workers settled there, and the population grew, establishing a large core of citizens.
A town constitution was established, setting an example to many other towns. Many of today's buildings originate from this time.
Emperor Frederick III gave the right to hold a second annual market, the Katharinenmarkt , in addition to the established Talmarkt.
This second market, held before Christmas, also survives in today's Christmas market, and its fame extends throughout the Baden-Württemberg region.
In the 16th century Wimpfen was a focal point of the Reformation. Probably the most important reformer was Erhard Schnepf who preached here from to His contemporary Heinrich Vogtherr wrote many reforming essays and hymns.
Although the Catholics offered huge resistance to the Reformation, their influence and number decreased. By there were only 30 Catholic inhabitants.
Catholics eventually lost their civil rights and their churches were converted to Protestant use. This religious conflict soon grew less important, as the imperial troops of the Count of Tilly fought against the army of Margrave Georg Friedrich of Baden-Durlach in near the town.
During this period Wimpfen was sacked several times, and houses and fields were burned. The population decreased radically due to disease and pestilence.
At the end of the war, in , the population had been reduced to a tenth of its pre-war size. Many important buildings were destroyed in this period, and redevelopment brought about loss of large parts of the castle which was used for building materials.
The town suffered the devastating consequences of the Thirty Years' War for more than years. Although the Celts had extracted salt since pre-Christian times, there was now no possibility to produce salt.
There was huge poverty within the population. During this time the town got financial aid from Nuremberg. In it was declared that the removal of wood from surrounding forests was to be taxed to improve the town's financial situation.
However, the citizens could not afford these fees. Consequently, there were many riots, but ultimately these were suppressed by local orders.
Originally, in terms of administration, by the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss the town was part of Baden. However, the knightly diocese of Wimpfen im Tal belonged to Hesse-Darmstadt.
Consequently, a conflict about sovereignty rights over the parish increased between Baden and Hesse. Finally Baden agreed to cede the area, since their own territory was far away — and so Wimpfen under Hessian rule.
This change was officially proclaimed on April 5, Starting in — Wimpfen was an outlying town under the control of Hesse.
For Wimpfen, this was a very comfortable situation as it was able to administer itself autonomously. At the time of the foundation of the People's State of Hesse in , Wimpfen became part of the district of Heppenheim.
In total, Wimpfen belonged to Hesse for years. In the American military government reorganised administrational areas, and Bad Wimpfen came again under the control of Baden.
In the first bore-holes were drilled for salt-water. In a permanent salt production works was established. The brine was usually able to be used therapeutically, and in the first therapeutic hotel opened Mathilden Spa Hotel.
A new economic prosperity began, and a new town hall was built in Many of the older Staufer buildings were destroyed at this time or fell into disrepair or disuse.
After the opening of the new rail road, running from Heilbronn to Heidelberg, in the s, the spa business increased greatly. Therapeutic baths were expanded more and more, resulting in a major economic growth.
Even Mark Twain reported this fact within accounts of his journey through Europe in On April 26, , the town got its prefix Bad officially.
On September 19, , the American military government proclaimed the foundation of Greater Hesse and Württemberg-Baden.
Now the area was completely surrounded by Württemberg-Baden, namely by the districts of Sinsheim and Heilbronn belonging to Baden area of Württemberg.
On November 26 the occupying American officials decided to transfer control of Wimpfen to the district of Sinsheim. Among local people, this decision was not well received.
Even Hesse demanded a return of its enclave. In a plebiscite held on April 29, , only 0. This change to Heilbronn was carried out on May 1, Despite this result, Hesse persisted in its opinion that Bad Wimpfen was a Hessian town.
However, it agreed that the newly founded state of Baden-Württemberg should administer the town. This means that the final status of any affiliation remains unclear even today.
However, Bad Wimpfen is completely integrated into the administration and jurisdiction of Baden-Württemberg. The present-day town of Bad Wimpfen is impressive both due to its various spa institutions and its numerous fine historic buildings.
The historical old part of the town is completely protected. Since a comprehensive program of redevelopment resulted in an important restoration of most buildings.
Due to the recession of the s, private initiatives have now superseded the earlier state interventions, but generally the pace of development has decreased and settled.
From to the buildings adjacent to the Catholic Church of St. Peter housed Grüssau Abbey. This Benedictine monastery in the district of Heilbronn, which had only three monks in , was eventually closed in the autumn of